¿QÚE ES EL SINDROME DEL IMPOSTOR Y CÓMO SUPERARLO?

By Psicologos Majadahonda

El síndrome del impostor, conocido también como síndrome de fraude, o fenómeno del impostor, es un problema psicológico bastante frecuente que se manifiesta como la incapacidad de una persona de considerar sus logros, objetivos o metas que va alcanzando a lo largo de su vida como propios, y resultado de su esfuerzo, inteligencia, dedicación o habilidades. Lo suelen justificar como causas externas, como pueden ser golpes de suerte, el azar o gracias a terceras personas.

En consecuencia, se trata de personas que con un alto rendimiento, y a pesar de sus éxitos, no internalizan esos logros, por lo que tienen dudas sobre sí mismos, y viven con miedo de que otros descubran que en realidad se trata de un impostor o un fraude.

Este síndrome puede ocurrir en diferentes ámbitos, tanto académico, laboral, social como familiar.

Este término, fue descrito por primera vez en 1978 por las psicólogas Pauline Clance y Suzanne Imes. Se estima que un 70% de la población lo experimentará en algún momento a lo largo de su vida, y se ha observado que afecta tanto a mujeres como a hombres.

Las causas por las que se origina este síndrome, pueden explicarse atendiendo tanto a la experiencia como a la historia de aprendizaje del individuo. Le influirá si convive con personas que tienen una actitud despectiva y crítica con él, y también si poseen una personalidad muy perfeccionista y autoexigente.

En el síndrome del impostor, existen una serie de síntomas que causan malestar sobre todo a nivel emocional a las personas que lo padecen:

  • Baja autoestima.
  • Dificultad para aceptar elogios.
  • Creencia de que los logros obtenidos no son merecidos, y que son debidos a otras causas externas.
  • Temor a ser descubiertos como un impostor o un fraude.
  • Expectativas de fracaso y sentimientos de incapacidad ante situaciones similares que ya ha superado con éxito anteriormente.
  • Inseguridad y falta de confianza en sí mismos.
  • Desmotivación.
  • Comparación constante con los demás.

Todos estos factores pueden afectar negativamente al bienestar de la persona que los padece, pudiendo desarrollar trastornos de ansiedad, depresión, desesperanza, estrés, agotamiento, problemas en relaciones interpersonales e incluso fobia a nuevas metas, objetivos y trabajos.

A nuestra consulta, Psicologos Majadahonda, llegan con frecuencia casos de este tipo.

Para evitar todo esto, en primer lugar deberíamos conseguir que la persona comprenda y entienda las causas y el origen, que han podido provocar que se sienta así. Para ello será necesario:

  • Identificar todos los sentimientos y emociones negativas, pues cuando surjan ayudarán a romper ese ciclo de pensamientos negativos.
  • Contrastar esos pensamientos con la realidad, buscando evidencias de si son ciertos o no, y sustituir ese pensamiento por uno que sea más constructivo.
  • Analizar cuáles son sus fortalezas: hacer un listado de aquellas cosas en las que  considera que es más competente.
  • Analizar cuáles son sus logros en el día a día.

No obstante, siempre es recomendable acudir a un profesional si los síntomas se prolongan.

Autor: Paula Rodas

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