El trastorno más sufrido por los sanitarios en la actualidad: Trastorno adaptativo

Hoy os queremos hablar del “Trastorno adaptativo con síntomas de ansiedad y/o depresión”, debido al alto número de casos que estamos recibiendo en Psicólogos Majadahonda, a causa de la situación actual (confinamiento + crisis sanitaria), especialmente por parte de profesionales de la salud

¿Qué es el Trastorno adaptativo?

Nos encontramos ante un trastorno adaptativo cuando se presenta en el individuo una respuesta fisiológica a causa de situaciones de estrés intenso que implican la aparición de síntomas emocionales, cognitivos o conductuales significativos clínicamente

Los síntomas de los trastornos de adaptación se desarrollan cuando la persona se encuentra en una situación particularmente difícil o en un evento vital estresante al que debe adaptarse, como por ejemplo una pérdida, una relación íntima problemática, un conflicto familiar, una oposición o evaluación académica complicada, un cambio de domicilio no deseado, dificultades financieras, cambio de trabajo, una decepción o un fracaso….o claramente ante una pandemia mundial.

La población que más está sufriendo este tipo de síndrome es la de los sanitarios (médicos, enfermeros, técnicos, auxiliares…), que están haciendo una labor magnífica y admirable por todos nosotros, pero que, desgraciadamente, les está afectando enormemente a su estado psicológico. Son probablemente los más perjudicados en este sentido, ya que están siendo obligados a ejercer su profesión casi sin protección ante el contagio, sufren la pérdida de amigos y compañeros, temen por la salud de sus más allegados (hay sanitarios que viven con sus hijos, y su familia, y nadie les ofrece los medios adecuados para salvaguardar la salud de los mismos), por otro lado, están teniendo un volumen muy alto de trabajo, en situación de estrés continuado., con la presión que esto conlleva.

(No puedo evitar añadir aquí mi opinión personal, a la par que profesional: estamos fragilizando la salud psíquica de los que ahora son nuestros héroes, si no están bien atendidos en lo que respecta a su salud física y psicológica, qué será de ellos y de todos nosotros a corto y medio plazo?).

Los trastornos adaptativos se codifican según la naturaleza de los síntomas predominantes.

  • Trastorno adaptativo con estado de ánimo depresivo.
  • Trastorno adaptativo con ansiedad.
  • Trastorno adaptativo mixto con ansiedad y estado de ánimo depresivo.
  • Trastorno adaptativo con trastorno del comportamiento.
  • Trastorno adaptativo con alteración mixta de las emociones y del comportamiento.

Los que más nos estamos encontrando en la clínica son el trastorno adaptativo con ansiedad, y el trastorno adaptativo mixto (ansiedad y estado de ánimo depresivo).

¿Cuáles son los síntomas del Trastorno adaptativo?

  • Bajo estado de ánimo, tristeza, llanto, preocupación, ansiedad, anhedonia (incapacidad para disfrutar de actividades placenteras), apatía, desmotivación, dificultad para respirar (disnea), opresión en el pecho, insomnio y problemas de concentración.
  • Otras manifestaciones comunes son baja autoestima, sentimientos de desesperanza, miedo, sentirse atrapado sin escapatoria, dudas constantes, incapacidad para planear actividades o llevar a cabo con normalidad la rutina diaria, y sentirse solo o sola.
  • En el caso de niños y adolescentes los síntomas del Trastorno Adaptativo son levemente distintos. En lugar de sentirse tristes, algunos niños pueden mostrarse irritables, con problemas para dormir y con un bajo rendimiento académico.

No se han encontrado correlatos físicos específicos para los trastornos de adaptación; no obstante, los pacientes suelen nombrar síntomas como: dolores (especialmente de cabeza, cuello y espalda) o molestias, fatiga, problemas digestivos, de sueño o dermatológicos.

Tratamiento del trastorno adaptativo:

El principal objetivo del tratamiento del Trastorno Adaptativo en Psicólogos Majadahonda es reducir y eliminar los síntomas de modo que la persona pueda recuperar un nivel de funcionamiento normal.

La Terapia Cognitivo Conductual es el tratamiento para los trastornos de adaptación que obtiene mejores resultados basados en técnicas científicas.

Objetivos del tratamiento:

  • Facilitar y apoyar la expresión emocional
  • Entrenamiento en solución de problemas
  • Entrenamiento en técnicas de relajación/respiración. (en los casos en los que sea necesario)
  • Desactivar el discurso sintomático conectando el malestar con los eventos estresantes
  • Comprender y reformular el significado del estresor para el paciente.
  • Elaborar una lista de las consecuencias negativas experimentadas por el paciente y trabajar conjuntamente para reducirlas.
  • Dotar al paciente de habilidades de afrontamiento (autoregulación emocional, evitación de afrontamiento desadaptativo, conducta asertiva, reestructuración cognitiva y autoinstrucciones positivas).
  • Ayudar al paciente a cambiar su interpretación del estresor, realizar ejercicio físico, aprender a relajarse, establecer relaciones, movilizar el apoyo social (no solo aprender a solicitarlo sino a aceptarlo), manejar sus emociones y los estresores mediante la inteligencia emocional.

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